formerly known as
Women's Liberation Front

Welcome to, formerly known as.Womens Liberation Front.  A website that hopes to draw and keeps your attention for  both the global 21th. century 3rd. feminist revolution and especially for the 'Woman, Life, Freedom' (translated the Zan, Zendagi, Azadi)  uprising in Iran and the struggles of our sisters in the Middle East.
This online magazine started December 2019 as a monthly and will now be published evey two weeks and concerning the 'Women, Life, Freedom' revolution in Iran every week. Thank you for your time and interest.
Gino d'Artali
indept investigative journalist
radical feminist and women's rights activist 

August 20, 2023
Preface to the new format of the 'Women's Arab Spring 1.2 Revolt' and the Iran 'Woman, Life, Freedom' movement
pages lay-out

You are now at the Iran 'Woman, Life, Freedom'  section

For the 'Women's Arab Spring 1.2' Revolt news click here





The face of Iran's protests. Her life, her dreams and her death.

In memory of Jina 'Mahsa' Amini, the cornerstone of the 'Zan. Zendagi. Azadi revolution.
16 February 2023 | By Gino d'Artali

And also
Read all about the assasination of the 22 year young Jhina Mahsa Amini or Zhina Mahsa Amini (Kurdistan-Iran) and the start of the Zan, Zendagi, Azadi (Women, life, freedom) revolution in Iran  2022
And the latest news about the 'Women Live Freedom' Revolution per month in 2023: September 30 - 16 -- September 17 - 1 -- August 31 - 18 -- August 15 - 1-- July 31 - 16 --July 15 -1--June 30 - 15--June 15-1--May 31 -16-- May 15-1--April--March--Feb--Jan  
And for all topics below
that may hopefully interest you click on the image:



Updated September 15, 2023



Updated September 6, 2023


Updated September 7, 2023



Updated September 14, 2023


 Updated September 6, 2023 


(Updates September 20, 2023)


Please go this page which is dedicated to the coming commeration of Jina Mahsa Amini, heinously murdered by a basij for apparently wearing her hijab wrongfully. Do participate:

Please do read because I wrote some thoughts and reflection about the coming commemoration of the killing of the 22-year-old Jina Mahsa Amini



By Diako Alavi, a journalist from Saqqez and family friend of Mahsa Amini 
The face of Iran's protests. Her life, her dreams and her death.  

Part 5: 16 - 14 - 11,September 2023
Part 6: 16 September, 2023

Part 7: 17 - 15 September, 2023
Part 8: 18 - 17 September, 2023
Part 9: 20 - 12 September 2023
Part 10:  22 - 21 September 2023

Gino d'artali's opinion: We mourn AND fight!

When one hurts or kills a women
one hurts or kills hummanity and is an antrocitie.
Gino d'Artali
and: My mother (1931-1997) always said to me <Mi figlio, non esistono notizie <vecchie> perche puoi imparare qualcosa da qualsiasi notizia.> Translated: <My son, there is no such thing as so called 'old' news because you can learn something from any news.>
Gianna d'Artali.


Opinion by Gino d'Artali: Yes this is part 8 of reporting about the Jina revolution because yes also it is a more than clear and loud answer from the protesters and dissent to the irgc who is trying very hard to suppress the uprising but they'll not succeed because the protesters of all kinds of walk of live will continue untill the flag of victory is raised with an attached wimpel saying 'Woman, Life (Jina in Kurdisch), Freedom'. So with it Cryfreedom of course will continue too to report.

JINHA - Womens News Agency - September 18, 2023 - By ŞILAN SALIH
<<'The use of chemical weapons is ignored'
Sulaymaniyah- The Iranian regime, the Turkish state and Iraqi Ba'athist government implemented their oppressive policies on the Kurdish people from 1980 to 1990. This has not changed today. Iran uses all kinds of oppression to suppress the 'Jin, Jiyan, Azadi' uprising; it used poisonous gas in girls’ schools while the Turkish state used and still uses chemical weapons against Kurdish people and the guerillas fighting for freedom. Despite international conventions prohibiting the use of chemical weapons, there is an international silence against the use of chemical weapons in the Medya Defense Zones.
Click here for a overview of biological attacks 'till now
<The use of chemical weapons is internationally prohibited,> said researcher Irad Menuçeher. <When chemical weapons were used during the first and second world wars, they caused millions of casualties. Due to the casualties, the use of chemical weapons was prohibited in warfare. However, chemical weapons are used against the Kurdish people in the Kurdistan Region today.> Irad Menuçeher talked about the effects of chemical weapons on both human beings and nature. <The use of chemical weapons affects all living creatures and nature. The international community banned the use of chemical and biological weapons after World War 1 and reinforced the ban in 1972 and 1993. Many countries have signed and ratified the Geneva Protocol, which prohibited the use of chemical weapons in warfare.
'An independent investigation must be launched'
The Turkish state is one of the countries that use chemical weapons in recent years. It has used chemical weapons in the Medya Defense Zones. However, the international human rights organizations and political parties remain silent against this. <The international law establishes the penalties for those who use chemical weapons. However, the economic interests of countries cause them to ignore the penalties. According to international law, an independent investigation must be launched against the countries that use chemical weapons.>
'The effect of the chemical weapons is long-term'
Irad Menuçeher concluded her speech saying, <Chemical weapons do not only kill people but also affect all living creatures and nature. The effect of the chemical weapons is long-term. However, no investigation has been launched against Turkey for using chemical weapons in the Kurdistan Region.> >>
Source incl. video:

Iranwire - September 18, 2023
<<Iranian Protest Artist among Dozens of Arrested
Iranian authorities have detained Nima Rezaei, a musician who collaborated on the protest song <Beginning of the End,> and took him to an undisclosed location. Rezaei has had no communication with his family since his arrest near Tehran's City Theater on September 17. The arrest came as protests continued across Iran amid a widespread crackdown by security forces a year after Mahsa Amini’s death in police custody. A tweet from Shargh newspaper quoted statements from officials saying that at least 260 individuals had been arrested over the weekend.
The number is believed to be much higher, however. The prosecutor of Qarchak prison near the capital announced the arrest of a person who allegedly planned <harmful and destructive actions in Tehran province.>
The official did not give the identity of the suspect. In the northern province of Alborz, officials announced the arrest of an unidentified <dual citizen> accused of <attempting to organize riots and vandalism> in Karaj, near Tehran. Meanwhile, the Intelligence Organization of the Isfahan Police Command announced the arrest of 10 people, saying that one of them faced charges of leading protests. As many as 137 protesters were reportedly arrested in West Azerbaijan province on September 16.>>
Note by Gino d'Artali: According to a source quoted below (NCRI...) the number of people having been arrested is at present up to 700. Unfortunately and I wish them more then the best!

The honorable but deeply mourning Amjad Amini
France 24 - September 18, 2023 - Video by: Jean-Emile JAMMINE
<<Iranian authorities on Saturday prevented the family of Mahsa Amini from holding a ceremony to commemorate the first anniversary of her death, confining her father under <house arrest>, as sporadic protests erupted nationwide despite heavy security, rights groups said. Amini, a 22-year-old Iranian Kurd, died a few days after her arrest by religious police for allegedly violating the strict dress code for women in force since shortly after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Her family says she died from a blow to the head but this is disputed by Iranian authorities. As Iran stops family from marking Mahsa Amini death anniversary, FRANCE 24's Jean-Emile Jammine is joined by Mahsa Alimardani, doctoral student at University of Oxford's Oxford Internet Institute and acting as a senior Information Control Fellow for the Open Technology Fund. She also works with human rights organisation ARTICLE19 on their digital rights projects in Iran.>>
Watch the video here:

Iranwire - September 18, 2023
<<Tension High at Iranian Women's Prison after Riot
The situation remained tense in Qarchak women's prison near Tehran late on September 17 where inmates set a fire the previous day. The incident unfolded on the afternoon of September 16, which marked the first anniversary of Mahsa Amini's death in police custody. In a phone call from the largest women's prison in the Middle East, an inmate said that convicts <set fire to their blankets and personal possessions ablaze....vandalized the ceilings and went on the rooftops.> She said that prison special forces entered the ward at 4:00 p.m. to put down the riot and stayed there until late in the night. Approximately 100 prisoners were taken away in connection with the riot, the inmate said, adding that there was <no information regarding their well-being.> In an audio recording sent to IranWire, civil activist Mozhgan Keshavarz said that the inmates who tried to exit toward the prison yard were prevented by the guards, who subjected them to physical violence. According to information received by IranWire, the guards brutally beat prisoners with batons, as dozens of gunshots were heard inside the facility. Several beaten prisoners sustained injuries with some in critical condition. The prisoner told IranWire that after the riot, the inmates were deprived of food, water and medication. <We lack food and water, and the prison remains under tight security,> she said. News of the prison fire at Qarchak emerged around 6:00 p.m. on September 16, with images shared on social media showing smoke billowing above the prison. According to some sources, the fire originated from the yard of Block 5 and quickly spread to other areas. Despite the blocks being filled with smoke, the prisoners were not allowed to evacuate. Individuals outside the prison witnessed ambulances leaving the facility, as a line of special forces prevented them from approaching the facility. Qarchak prison primarily houses women convicted of general crimes, but it is also used to detain political and civil activists. According to the most recent report by the Atlas of Iran's Prisons, more than 1,200 women are held in the seven wards of Qarchak prison.>>

JINHA - Womens News Agency - September 18, 2023
<<Two Kurdish activists arrested in Iran
News Center- On the first anniversary of the killing of Jina Mahsa Amini, protests were held in Iran and many parts of the world. In Kermanshah and Sanandaj, where many protests were held on September 16, two Kurdish activists, Parisa Mohammadi and Galavezh Tahmasbi, were arrested and taken to unknown locations on September 16 by Iranian security forces. According to the reports of the Hengaw Organization for Human Rights, Parisa Mohammadi, a mountaineer athlete from Kermanshah, was arrested by government forces on Si Metri Street in the city on September 16, at 8p.m. Galavezh Tahmasbi, a 39-year-old environmental activist and mountaineer from Sanandaj, was arrested on the same day after being summoned to the Sanandaj Intelligence Department. <Since their arrests, there has been no available information regarding the charges against these two female activists, also including comprehensive information about their fate and whereabouts,> said the Hengaw Organization for Human Rights.>>

JINHA - Womens News Agency - September 18, 2023 - By BAHARİN LEHİB
<<'Our Iranian and Kurdish sisters should keep raising their voices'
Kabul- The <Jin, Jiyan, Azadi (Women, Life, Freedom)> uprising that started in Iran and Rojhelat Kurdistan following the killing of Kurdish woman Jina Mahsa Amini by Iran's so-called <morality police> on September 16, 2022, has left its first year behind. Although the Iranian regime tries to quell the protests by killing, executing, torturing and arresting people, people still take to the streets to demand freedom. The uprising has been echoing all around the world. The women, who are most excited about the uprising and express their solidarity with the women of Iran and Rojhelat Kurdistan, are Afghan women.
'They should raise their voices'
Since the Taliban takeover on August 15, 2021, Afghan women have been expressing at every opportunity that they do not want an oppressive system and they have been resisting the Taliban. Afghan women's rights defender Shamla is one of Afghan women resisting the Taliban. Speaking about the first anniversary of the <Jin, Jiyan, Azadi> uprising, she said: <As Afghan women, we understand the suffering and resistance of our Iranian and Kurdish sisters better than anyone else in the world. Women know very well that the only way to protect themselves from religious fundamentalists is to struggle and resist. Therefore, they should raise their voices.> >>
Source incl. video:

JINHA - Womens News Agency - September 18, 2023
<<At least 700 people arrested in Iran
Iran- Thousands took to the streets in Iran and Rojhelat Kurdistan to mark the first anniversary of the <Jin, Jiyan, Azadi (Women, Life, Freedom)> uprising and to commemorate Jina Mahsa Amini, who was killed by Iran's so-called <morality police> in Tehran on September 16, 2022. Iranian security forces arrested at least 700 people in the protests held in the cities of Rojhelat Kurdistan such as Saqqez, Sanandaj, Sistan and Baluchestan province and in Tehran and Urmia. According to the received reports, the families of arrested people tried to get information about their relatives; however, they were given no information. Iranian security forces attacked the families waiting in front of the Tehran Metropolitan Relief Unit. Many were reportedly injured in the attack.>>

NCRI - Womens committee - in Maryam Rajavi Speeches - September 18, 2023
<<The Telegraph: The Iranian Regime Is Primed For Total Collapse
The London-based The Telegraph published an OPED by the NCRI President-elect Maryam Rajavi in its September 17, 2023, issue. Following is the text. Khamenei knows he can't offer concessions, since the smallest shift could trigger another uprising across the deprived and suppressed nation
Almost exactly a year ago, a remarkable nationwide uprising unfolded in Iran. It witnessed people from all walks of life chanting <death to [regime supreme leader Ali] Khamenei> and <down with the oppressor>. These powerful words reflected the popular rejection of the clerical regime. In mere days, the uprising became a firestorm of dissent that encompassed every province and shook the ruling theocracy to its core. In response, the regime embarked on a campaign to ruthlessly suppress the revolt. The past year has been unmistakably characterised by the people's uprising on the one hand, and the regime's relentless crackdown on the other. However, when we contemplate the future of Iran, a fundamental question arises: which one of these forces will ultimately shape the nation's destiny? The mullahs want to convey the impression that the balance of power has reverted to its pre-uprising status. But the daily realities experienced by the people paint a starkly contrasting narrative. A bankrupt economy, unbridled inflation, chronic unemployment, and institutionalised discrimination are contributing to a situation in which Iranian society is primed to erupt again.
The events of September 2022 revealed widespread discontent transcending class, region, generation and gender. It was led by women. The middle and lower classes came to the streets in major urban centres and smaller towns. And in spite of the regime's four-decade endeavor to exert control over universities, students played a leading role in the uprising, often receiving resolute support from fellow citizens. There was also unprecedented participation from high school students. This epitomised the people’s fervent longing to oust the theocracy, which, for over four decades, has clung to power through brutal repression. Despite its brutality, the regime has failed to eliminate the organised resistance. Western analysts, taken aback by the profound societal discontent, might have been less surprised had they been attuned to recent developments in Iranian society. Several nationwide uprisings have unfolded since December 2017, steadily increasing in frequency, scale and social inclusiveness, while the demands of participants have grown progressively radical. All of which is compounded by the fact that the regime is woefully incapable of enacting major economic, political or social changes. It knows that any substantial change would risk spiralling out of control, intensifying the populace's desire for self-governance and liberty, and ultimately hastening its own disintegration. Consequently, the regime can only rely on short-term, constrained measures to stifle dissent or temporarily placate the public. It has no long-term strategy to avert enduring conflict. Khamenei is acutely aware that a larger uprising looms on the horizon. Yet his response remains confined to consolidating power within loyalist ranks, poised to enforce future suppressive measures. This only serves to bolster the people's calls for a comprehensive regime change, escalating social tensions and setting the stage for a more devastating revolt. The Iranian people are resolute in their quest for freedom. The West must now recalibrate its policies consistent with this reality in mind, and abandon the politics of appeasement. It should refrain from offering concessions to the regime, designate the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a terrorist organisation, and acknowledge the Iranian people's inalienable right to resist against tyranny.
The Telegraph>>

EKURD Daily - September 17, 2023 - By Dr. Amir Sharifi | Exclusive to
<<Remembering Jina-Mahsa Amini: Intersections of Feminism and Ethnicity
The Islamic Republic of Iran has embarked on an intense repression, in particular after it faced an intensive resistance following jina/Mahasa Amini's brutal murder by the morality police on Sept 16, 2022. The feminist uprising began in Kurdish areas and spread like wildfire initially locally and then globally through social media with the Kurdish slogan of <jin, jiyan, Azadi> Woman, Life, and Freedom, calling for an end to the Shi'ite clerical rule and its patriarchal system throughout Iran. It was the greatest feminist uprising ever seen in depth and breadth. Ensuing reports publicized the tragedy of the 22-year-old Jina Amini-Niloufar Hamedi and Elahe Mohammadi, two journalists who were imprisoned for their hospital report and jina's funeral respectively. In the course of eight months, more than 700 people were killed, 71 of them children; over 30, 000 people were arrested, many executed. Even a 9-year-old boy was shot dead by the security forces; many young girls and boys were raped as a parcel of draconian repression.
With commemoration of Jina / Mahsa Amini's tragic death, a new spate of terror and repression began. The security forces threatened the family of Amini against marking Jina's anniversary. Kurdish Human Rights Organization, Hengaw reported the parents would hold a commemorative event at Jina Amini's gravesite in her hometown of Saghez. The latest reports indicate all access roads were blocked by the security forces and their tanks and heavy artillery. Hengaw Human Rights Association reports that the Islamic Republic has doubled down on draconian measures against anyone suspected of political and human rights activism and that there was an increase in arbitrary arrests and abductions a 17% [increase] compared to July of last year....women (36), children (11), Gilakis (22), Balochis (14), Azeri Turks (14), Bahais (17), Kurds (116). The report indicates that <44% were Kurdish citizens.> This trend and litany of violating the personal and international law against ethnic and religious minorities has increased.
Iranian Kurdish women Mahsa (Jina) Amini died after being detained by morality police enforcing strict hijab rules. The military dictatorship of theocracy upheld by the Supreme leader and the IRGC (Sepeh-e Pasdaran-e-Engelab-e-Eslami) saw the hope and optimism of many and feared its own fall. Consequently, it used brute force to sustain a regime that had lost all its legitimacy even among its adherents. Yet the universal slogan <Woman, Life, Freedom> has continued to withstand the savage onslaught of the regime, bent on not allowing the uprising to deepen into a revolution organized by civic and progressive organizations throughout Iran. That is why family members and even lawyers of families who have lost their daughters and sons had been summoned and arrested, those provisionally freed have been threatened not to engage in any commemorative events and activities on the anniversary of Jina Amini's death. The increase in arbitrary arrests and harassment of girls and young women as reported by the UN investigation, unveils the schizophrenia of the Islamic Regime. The new feminist uprising that rocked the Shi'ite clerical rule and its system of gender apartheid is bound to continue till the collapse of theocracy. Widespread strikes have been reported in the highly militarized Kurdish towns and major city centers contrary to the regime's, IRNA in its Goebel like propaganda announced Amini's hometown was <completely quiet> due to <the vigilance and the presence of security and military forces>. On the eve of Jina /Mahsa’s death, the regime in Iran had put Amjad Amini, the father of Jina/Mahsa Amini, under house arrest and militarily blocked and flooded access to the cemetery where Jina is buried. Kurds at home or in exile marked the anniversary as the rising repression threatens them as the harbingers of the new feminist uprising.
Protests will not settle down. Women continued to tear off their scarves despite harsher rules and decrees; Kurds and other ethnic groups such as Baluchis will continue to fight for their basic rights such as the right to education in their mother tongue and socio-cultural and linguistic self-determination despite theocratic and nationalist oppositions. Resistance in the Kurdish city of Sne manifested itself by once again barricading the streets. Most stores and shops in at least 18 Kurdish cities had closed down in a general strike. Once again, the Kurdish population, women, girls, men and boys will pour into the streets in hundreds of thousands; they will create more barricades to bring down the regime. Women will seek gender equity; they will dance and chant revolutionary and secular songs; Universities and high schools will continue to be citadels of resistance; more professors will rise in solidarity with their students and in defence of academic freedom. The Kurdish participation in Jina Amini's uprising was fostered by civic and human rights associations and sustained by the tradition of collective will in defense of freedom and socio-economic rights. However, the rest of Iran did not rise to support the Kurdish revolutionary movement as the national hierarchy and cries of <independence> from the regime motivated royalists and Iranian nationalism to adopt their own defeating slogans of <territorial integrity> against <separatists> as the Islamic Republic succeeded to <divide and conquer>. The increased repression in <Kurdistan> enhances the political importance of the Kurdish resistance that continues to pose an existential threat to the entirety of the regime in Iran. As we reflect on the slogan of <woman, life, freedom> and its symbolic significance one year after, we will continue to align ourselves with the true advocates of democracy in 2022; women have played a long and extensive role in the revolutionary uprising against the patriarchal culture in civil and political walks of life and resistance to oppression in their quest for equity and an inclusive democracy in which the youth men and women, workers, ethnic and religious minorities participate. That is why the Islamic Republic is determined to annihilate their struggle against Hejab and other patriarchal structures of discrimination and violence as arrests and harassment against women and girls are on the rise, according to Amnesty International and UN investigations. The violence unleashed against women and Kurds bespeaks of both patriarchy and politics of exclusion and erasure; yet feminist uprising is ultimately emancipatory as it is inclusive of diversity, the very basis on which a genuine democracy rests.
Dr Amir Sharifi, a lecturer at California State University, Department of Linguistics, Long Beach.
The opinions are those of the writer and do not necessarily represent the views of or its editors.>>

In a shocking scene, dozens of security forces surrounded a lone young woman in the street to arrest her.
NCRI-iran - in Women's news - September 17, 2023
<<Women and youths in Hamedan confront IRGC repressive forces
Clashes mark the anniversary of Iran's uprising in various cities across the country
The city of Hamedan saw widespread confrontations between women and youths in Hamedan and the regime's brutal security forces with chants of <death to Khamenei> and <death to the Republic of Executions> on Sunday, September 17, 2023. The clashes mark the anniversary of the murder of Mahsa Amini and the beginning of the nationwide uprising last year in these very days. Young women in Hamedan chanted, <We will kill whoever killed my sister,> in the face of security forces. The protests took place in District 13 of the city. Video footage from the city shows one-on-one clashes between youths and security forces as well as the sound of shooting. Yesterday, September 16, 2023, business and shop owners in dozens of cities in Iranian Kurdistan closed their shops and markets and went on strike to mark the anniversary of the Iran uprising and the murder of Mahsa Amini. In Tehran, security forces blocked the streets leading to Enghelab Square. Helicopters were hovering over the city, and security forces shot people with pellet guns. In Mashhad, anti-riot vehicles were stationed along the streets in huge numbers. Basij mercenaries and plainclothes agents were roaming the streets on motorcycles to create an atmosphere of terror. Nevertheless, many women and youths took to the streets and chanted anti-regime slogans. Heavy clashes were also reported from Kermanshah, between young protesters and security forces which started at dusk and continued through the night, forcing the repressive forces to retreat.>>

Iranwire - September 17, 2023
<<Security Forces Shoot Man Dead in Sanandaj
Iranian security forces shot and killed a man in the Kurdish town of Sanandaj during last night's protests, IranWire reports. Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) forces were pursuing and firing at a private car carrying several protesting citizens, one of whom was struck in the chest from behind with a bullet, according to IranWire sources. The injured protester was rushed to Towheed Hospital by his friends, but despite initial medical treatment he succumbed to his injuries before reaching the hospital. IranWire has learned that IRGC forces are currently present at the hospital, and the cause of death has been categorised as a <street fight>. The forces also took custody of the deceased protester’s body.In a separate incident yesterday, government forces of the Islamic Republic opened fire on a Saqqez citizen named Fardin Jafari, targeting him in the head. Hospital reports indicate that Jafari has been declared brain dead.>>

Iranwire - September 17, 2023
<<Police Beat Relatives of Protest Detainees
Iranian police officers in the capital have brutally assaulted families who came to inquire about the condition of their loved ones detained during yesterday's protests on the one-year anniversary of the death of Mahsa Amini in custody. The families had gathered outside the Greater Tehran Police Command when they were attacked and beaten. In the video footage documenting this incident police officers are seen wielding batons as they attack and batter several members of the families. Protests erupted yesterday in cities across Iran, including Tehran, Sanandaj, Mahabad, Rasht, Mashhad, Lahijan and Arak last night. Government agents forcefully arrested many demonstrators, including a 15-year-old boy, Kavan Rezaei.
Rezaei was taken into custody by forces of the Sanandaj Intelligence Department in Kurdestan province and has been moved to an undisclosed location. Images captured outside police stations show numerous families of detainees anxiously awaiting updates on their relatives' status in several cities today.>>

Iranwire - September 17, 2023
<<Security Forces Still Patrol Amini's Home Town
A day after the one-year anniversary of Mahsa Amini's death in custody, heavily armed forces are still patrolling her home town of Saqqez and helicopters are hovering overhead. Forces are stationed in Azadi, Enghelab, Qods, Zindan, Vahdat and Karimabad squares and University Town, where Amini's parents' house is located. As people are back to work after a day-long strike, military vehicles sometimes cause traffic jams, especially in the city centre, IranWire sources reported. Security forces and motorcycle units are conducting manoeuvres in groups of 15 and 20 officers inside the city.
Activists and ordinary citizens have been arrested or summoned by security authorities in recent days, while cities have experienced a significant slowdown in internet speed. >>


Click here to go to the 'Woman, Life, Freedom' section

 Liberation Front 2019/ 2023